IFM10 Ch 10 Test Bank

September 7, 2017 | Author: diasjona | Category: Cost Of Capital, Preferred Stock, Stocks, Dividend, Capital Asset Pricing Model
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CHAPTER 10 DETERMINING THE COST OF CAPITAL (Difficulty: E = Easy, M = Medium, and T = Tough)

True-False Easy: (10.1) Cost of capital Answer: a Diff: E 1 . The cost of capital should reflect the average cost of the various sources of long-term funds a firm uses to support its assets. a. True b. False (10.1) Capital Answer: a 2 . Capital can be defined as the funds supplied by investors.

Diff: E

a. True b. False (10.1) Component costs of capital Answer: a Diff: E 3 . The component costs of capital are market-determined variables in as much as they are based on investors' required returns. a. True b. False (10.2) Cost of debt Answer: b Diff: E 4 . The before-tax cost of debt, which is lower than the after-tax cost, is used as the component cost of debt for purposes of developing the firm's WACC. a. True b. False (10.2) Cost of debt Answer: b Diff: E 5 . The cost of debt is equal to one minus the marginal tax rate multiplied by the coupon rate on outstanding debt. a. True b. False (10.3) Cost of preferred stock Answer: b Diff: E 6 . The cost of issuing preferred stock by a corporation must be adjusted to an after-tax figure because of the 70 percent dividend exclusion provision for corporations holding other corporations' preferred stock. a. True b. False Chapter 10: Determining the Cost of Capital

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(10.4) Cost of common stock Answer: a Diff: E 7 . The cost of common stock is the rate of return stockholders require on the firm's common stock. a. True b. False (10.4) Retained earnings Answer: b Diff: E 8 . In capital budgeting and cost of capital analyses, the firm should always consider retained earnings as the first source of capital, since this is a free source of funding to the firm. a. True b. False (10.4) Retained earnings Answer: b Diff: E 9 . Funds acquired by the firm through retaining earnings have no cost because there are no dividend or interest payments associated with them, but capital raised by selling new stock or bonds does have a cost. a. True b. False (10.4) Cost of internal equity Answer: b Diff: E 10 . The cost of equity raised by retaining earnings can be less than, equal to, or greater than the cost of external equity raised by selling new issues of common stock, depending on tax rates, flotation costs, the attitude of investors, and other factors. a. True b. False (10.4) Cost of external equity Answer: b Diff: E 11 . The firm's cost of external equity capital is the same as the required rate of return on the firm's outstanding common stock. a. True b. False (10.4) Cost of external equity Answer: b Diff: E 12 . The cost of equity capital from the sale of new common stock (re) is generally equal to the cost of equity capital from retention of earnings (rs), divided by one minus the flotation cost as a percentage of sales price (1 - F). a. True b. False

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Chapter 10: Determining the Cost of Capital -

(10.4) Flotation cost and capital choice Answer: b Diff: E 13 . The higher the firm's flotation cost for new common equity, the more likely the firm is to use preferred stock which has no flotation cost and retained earnings whose cost is the average return on assets. a. True b. False (10.10) Cost of capital Answer: b Diff: E 14 . You are the president of a small, publicly-traded corporation. Since you believe that your firm's stock price is temporarily depressed, all additional capital funds required during the current year will be raised using debt. Thus, the appropriate marginal cost of capital for the current year is the after-tax cost of debt. a. True b. False

Medium: (10.2) After-tax cost of debt Answer: b Diff: M 15 . It is not possible for a firm's use of debt to increase but its aftertax cost of debt to decline. a. True b. False (10.2) After-tax cost of debt Answer: a Diff: M 16 . A firm going from a lower to a higher tax bracket could increase its use of debt, yet actually wind up with a lower after-tax cost of debt. a. True b. False (10.4) Cost of equity Answer: b Diff: M 17 . Since 70 percent of preferred dividends received by a corporation is excluded from taxable income, the component cost of equity for a company which pays half of its earnings out as common dividends and half as preferred dividends should, theoretically, be Cost of equity = rs(0.30)(0.50) + rps(1 - T)(0.70)(0.50). a. True b. False

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(10.5) Inflation effects Answer: b Diff: M 18 . If expectations for long-term inflation rose, but the slope of the SML remained constant, this would have a greater impact on the required rate of return on equity, rs, than on the interest rate on long-term debt, rd, for most firms. In other words, the percentage point increase in the cost of equity would be greater than the increase in the interest rate on long-term debt. a. True b. False (10.10) WACC Answer: c Diff: M . Suppose the debt ratio (D/TA) is 10 percent, the current cost of debt is 8 percent, the current cost of equity is 16 percent, and the tax rate is 40 percent. An increase in the debt ratio to 20 percent would decrease the weighted average cost of capital.

19

a. True b. False c. More information is needed to determine the effect on the WACC. (10.10) WACC Answer: a Diff: M 20 . The cost of debt, rd, is always less than rs, so rd(1 - T) will certainly be less than rs. Therefore, as long as the firm is not completely debt financed, the weighted average cost of capital will always be greater than rd(1 - T). a. True b. False (10.10) WACC and tax rate Answer: b Diff: M 21 . The lower the firm's tax rate, the lower will be the firm's after-tax cost of debt and WACC, other things held constant. a. True b. False (10.10) Specific source capital cost Answer: b Diff: M 22 . Firms should use their weighted average cost of capital (WACC) when they are funding their capital projects with a variety of sources. However, when the firm plans on using only debt or only equity to fund a particular project, it should use the after-tax cost of the specific source of capital to evaluate that project. a. True b. False

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Multiple Choice: Conceptual Easy: (10.1) Capital components Answer: c Diff: E 23 . Which of the following is not considered a capital component for the purpose of calculating the weighted average cost of capital as it applies to capital budgeting? a. b. c. d. e.

Long-term debt. Common stock. Accounts payable. Preferred stock. All of the above are considered capital components for WACC and capital budgeting purposes.

(10.1) Capital components Answer: e 24 . Which of the following is not considered a capital component? a. b. c. d. e.

Diff: E

Long-term debt. Common stock. Permanent short-term debt. Preferred stock. All of the above are considered capital components.

(10.1) Capital components Answer: c Diff: E 25 . Which of the following is not considered a capital component for the purpose of calculating the weighted average cost of capital as it applies to capital budgeting? a. b. c. d. e.

Long-term debt. Common stock. Short-term debt used to finance seasonal current assets. Preferred stock. All of the above are considered capital components for WACC and capital budgeting purposes.

(10.6) DCF cost of equity estimation Answer: b Diff: E 26 . Which of the following factors in the discounted cash flow (DCF) approach to estimating the cost of common equity is the least difficult to estimate? a. Expected growth rate, g. b. Dividend yield, D1/P0. c. Required return, rs. d. Expected rate of return,



r s.

e. All of the above are equally difficult to estimate.

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(10.10) Capital components Answer: d Diff: E 27 . For a typical firm with a given capital structure, which of the following is correct? (Note: All rates are after taxes.) a. b. c. d. e.

rd > rs > WACC rs > None

rs > WACC. rd > WACC. > rs > rd. WACC > rd. of the statements above is correct.

(10.10) Capital components 28 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: a

Diff: E

a. If a company's tax rate increases but the yield to maturity of its noncallable bonds remains the same, the company's marginal cost of debt capital used to calculate its weighted average cost of capital will fall. b. All else equal, an increase in a company's stock price will increase the marginal cost of common stock, rs. c. All else equal, an increase in interest rates will decrease the marginal cost of common stock, rs. d. Answers a and b are correct. e. Answers b and c are correct. (10.10) Cost of capital components and WACC . Which of the following statements is most correct?

29

Answer: c

Diff: E

a. The WACC is a measure of the before-tax cost of capital. b. Typically the after-tax cost of debt financing exceeds the after-tax cost of equity financing. c. The WACC measures the marginal after-tax cost of capital. d. Statements a and b are correct. e. Statements b and c are correct. (10.10) WACC and capital components Answer: a Diff: E 30 . A company has a capital structure which consists of 50 percent debt and 50 percent equity. Which of the following statements is most correct? a. The cost of equity financing is greater than or equal to the cost of debt financing. b. The WACC exceeds the cost of equity financing. c. The WACC is calculated on a before-tax basis. d. The WACC represents the cost of capital based on historical averages. In that sense, it does not represent the marginal cost of capital. e. The cost of retained earnings exceeds the cost of issuing new common stock.

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(10.11) Factors influencing WACC Answer: a Diff: E 31 . Wyden Brothers uses the CAPM to calculate the cost of equity capital. The company’s capital structure consists of common stock, preferred stock, and debt. Which of the following events will reduce the company’s WACC? a. b. c. d. e.

A reduction An increase An increase An increase An increase stock.

in in in in in

the market risk premium. the risk-free rate. the company’s beta. expected inflation. the flotation costs associated with issuing preferred

Medium: (10.5) CAPM cost of equity estimation Answer: e Diff: M 32 . In applying the CAPM to estimate the cost of equity capital, which of the following elements is not subject to dispute or controversy? a. b. c. d. e.

The The The The All

expected rate of return on the market, rM. stock's beta coefficient, bi. risk-free rate, rRF. market risk premium (RPM). of the above are subject to dispute.

(10.6) CAPM and DCF estimation 33 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: a

Diff: M

a. Beta measures market risk, but if a firm's stockholders are not well diversified, beta may not accurately measure stand-alone risk. b. If the calculated beta underestimates the firm's true investment risk, then the CAPM method will overestimate rs. c. The discounted cash flow method of estimating the cost of equity can't be used unless the growth component, g, is constant during the analysis period. d. An advantage shared by both the DCF and CAPM methods of estimating the cost of equity capital, is that they yield precise estimates and require little or no judgement. e. All of the statements above are false.

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(10.8) Cost of equity estimation 34 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: d

Diff: M

a. Although some methods of estimating the cost of equity capital encounter severe difficulties, the CAPM is a simple and reliable model that provides great accuracy and consistency in estimating the cost of equity capital. b. The DCF model is preferred over other models to estimate the cost of equity because of the ease with which a firm's growth rate is obtained. c. The bond-yield-plus-risk-premium approach to estimating the cost of equity is not always accurate but its advantages are that it is a standardized and objective model. d. Depreciation-generated funds are an additional source of capital and, in fact, represent the largest single source of funds for some firms. e. None of the statements above is correct. (10.8) CAPM cost of equity estimation 35 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: e

Diff: M

a. The CAPM approach to estimating a firm's cost of common stock never gives a better estimate than the DCF approach. b. The CAPM approach is typically used to estimate a firm's cost of preferred stock. c. The risk premium used in the bond-yield-plus-risk-premium method is the same as the one used in the CAPM method. d. In practice (as opposed to in theory), the DCF method and the CAPM method usually produce exactly the same estimate for rs. e. The statements above are all false. (10.8) Miscellaneous concepts 36 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: a

Diff: M

a. Suppose a firm is losing money and thus, is not paying taxes, and that this situation is expected to persist for a few years whether or not the firm uses debt financing. Then the firm's after-tax cost of debt will equal its before-tax cost of debt. b. The component cost of preferred stock is expressed as r ps(1 - T), because preferred stock dividends are treated as fixed charges, similar to the treatment of debt interest. c. The reason that a cost is assigned to retained earnings is because these funds are already earning a return in the business; the reason does not involve the opportunity cost principle. d. The bond-yield-plus-risk-premium approach to estimating a firm's cost of common equity involves adding a subjectively determined risk-premium to the market risk-free bond rate. e. All of the statements above are false.

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(10.8) Miscellaneous concepts 37 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: a

Diff: M

a. The before-tax cost of preferred stock may be lower than the beforetax cost of debt, even though preferred stock is riskier than debt. b. If a company's stock price increases, this increases its cost of common stock. c. If the cost of equity capital increases, it must be due to an increase in the firm's beta. d. Statements a and b are correct. e. Answers a, b, and c are correct. (10.10) Capital components 38 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: d

Diff: M

a. Capital components are the types of capital used by firms to raise money. All capital comes from one of three components: long-term debt, preferred stock, and equity. b. Preferred stock does not involve any adjustment for flotation cost since the dividend and price are fixed. c. The cost of debt used in calculating the WACC is an average of the after-tax cost of new debt and of outstanding debt. d. The opportunity cost principle implies that if the firm cannot invest retained earnings and earn at least rs, it should pay these funds to its stockholders and let them invest directly in other assets that do provide this return. e. The cost of common stock, rs, is usually less than the cost of preferred stock. (10.10) Capital components 39 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: e

Diff: M

a. In the weighted average cost of capital calculation, we must adjust the cost of preferred stock for the tax exclusion of 70 percent of dividend income. b. We ideally would like to use historical measures of the component costs from prior financings in estimating the appropriate weighted average cost of capital. c. The cost of common stock (rs) will increase if the market risk premium and risk-free rate decline by a substantial amount. d. Statements b and c are correct. e. None of the statements above is correct.

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(10.10) Cost of capital estimation 40 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: c

Diff: M

a. The cost of capital used to evaluate a project should be the cost of the specific type of financing used to fund that project. b. The cost of debt used to calculate the weighted average cost of capital is based on an average of the cost of debt already issued by the firm and the cost of new debt. c. One problem with the CAPM approach to estimating the cost of equity capital is that if a firm's stockholders are, in fact, not well diversified, beta may be a poor measure of the firm's true investment risk. d. The bond-yield-plus-risk-premium approach is the most sophisticated and objective method of estimating a firm's cost of equity capital. e. The cost of equity capital is generally easier to measure than the cost of debt, which varies daily with interest rates, or the cost of preferred stock since preferred stock is issued infrequently. (10.10) WACC 41 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: d

Diff: M

a. The weighted average cost of capital for a given capital budget level is a weighted average of the marginal cost of each relevant capital component which makes up the firm's target capital structure. b. The weighted average cost of capital is calculated on a before-tax basis. c. An increase in the risk-free rate is likely to increase the marginal costs of both debt and equity financing. d. Answers a and c are correct. e. All of the answers above are correct. (10.11) WACC concepts 42 . Which of the following incorrect?

statements

about

the

Answer: c Diff: M cost of capital is

a. A company's target capital structure affects its weighted average cost of capital. b. Weighted average cost of capital calculations should be based on the after-tax-costs of all the individual capital components. c. If a company's tax rate increases, then, all else equal, its weighted average cost of capital will increase. d. The cost of retained earnings is equal to the return stockholders could earn on alternative investments of equal risk. e. Flotation costs can increase the cost of preferred stock. (10.12) Risk treatment Answer: e Diff: M 43 . Which of the following methods of estimating the cost of common equity for a firm treats risk explicitly? a. b. c. d. Page 10

DCF method. CAPM method. Composite method. Bond-yield-plus-risk-premium method. Chapter 10: Determining the Cost of Capital -

e. Answers b and d are correct. (10.14) WACC concepts 44 . Which of the following statements is most correct?

Answer: e

Diff: M

a. Since stockholders do not generally pay corporate taxes, corporations should focus on before-tax cash flows when calculating the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). b. When calculating the weighted average cost of capital, firms should include the cost of accounts payable. c. When calculating the weighted average cost of capital, firms should rely on historical costs rather than marginal costs of capital. d. Answers a and b are correct. e. None of the answers above is correct.

Multiple Choice: Problems Easy: (10.6) Cost of common stock Answer: d Diff: E 45 . Bouchard Company's stock sells for $20 per share, its last dividend (D0) was $1.00, and its growth rate is a constant 6 percent. What is its cost of common stock, rs? a. 5.0% b. 5.3% c. 11.0% d. 11.3% e. 11.6% (10.6) Cost of common stock Answer: b Diff: E 46 . Your company's stock sells for $50 per share, its last dividend (D0) was $2.00, and its growth rate is a constant 5 percent. What is the cost of common stock, rs? a. 9.0% b. 9.2% c. 9.6% d. 9.8% e. 10.0% (10.6) Cost of common stock Answer: e Diff: E 47 . The Global Advertising Company has a marginal tax rate of 40 percent. The last dividend paid by Global was $0.90. Global's common stock is selling for $8.59 per share, and its expected growth rate in earnings and dividends is 5 percent. What is Global's cost of common stock? a. b. c. d. e.

12.22% 17.22% 10.33% 9.66% 16.00%

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(10.9) WACC with Flotation Costs 48 . An analyst has collected Christopher Co.:

the

following

Answer: a Diff: E information regarding

• The company’s capital structure is 70 percent equity, 30 percent debt. • The yield to maturity on the company’s bonds is 9 percent. • The company’s year-end dividend is forecasted to be $0.80 a share. • The company expects that its dividend will grow at a constant rate of 9 percent a year. • The company’s stock price is $25. • The company’s tax rate is 40 percent. • The company anticipates that it will need to raise new common stock this year. Its investment bankers anticipate that the total flotation cost will equal 10 percent of the amount issued. Assume the company accounts for flotation costs by adjusting the cost of capital. Given this information, calculate the company’s WACC. a. b. c. d. e.

10.41% 12.56% 10.78% 13.55% 9.29%

Medium: (10.5) Cost of common stock Answer: d Diff: M 49 . The common stock of Anthony Steel has a beta of 1.20. The risk-free rate is 5 percent and the market risk premium (rM - rRF) is 6 percent. What is the company’s cost of common stock, rs? a. 7.0% b. 7.2% c. 11.0% d. 12.2% e. 12.4% (10.6) Cost of common stock Answer: b Diff: M 50 . Martin Corporation's common stock is currently selling for $50 per share. The current dividend is $2.00 per share. If dividends are expected to grow at 6 percent per year, then what is the firm's cost of common stock? a. b. c. d. e.

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10.0% 10.2% 10.6% 10.8% 11.0%

Chapter 10: Determining the Cost of Capital -

(10.6) WACC and dividend growth rate Answer: c Diff: M 51 . Grateway Inc. has a weighted average cost of capital of 11.5 percent. Its target capital structure is 55 percent equity and 45 percent debt. The company has sufficient retained earnings to fund the equity portion of its capital budget. The before-tax cost of debt is 9 percent, and the company’s tax rate is 30 percent. If the expected dividend next period (D1) and current stock price are $5 and $45, respectively, what is the company’s growth rate? a. b. c. d. e.

2.68% 3.44% 4.64% 6.75% 8.16%

(10.10) WACC Answer: d Diff: M 52 . A company’s balance sheets show a total of $30 million long-term debt with a coupon rate of 9 percent. The yield to maturity on this debt is 11.11 percent, and the debt has a total current market value of $25 million. The balance sheets also show that that the company has 10 million shares of stock; the total of common stock and retained earnings is $30 million. The current stock price is $7.5 per share. The current return required by stockholders, rS, is 12 percent. The company has a target capital structure of 40 percent debt and 60 percent equity. The tax rate is 40%. What weighted average cost of capital should you use to evaluate potential projects? a. 8.55% b. 9.33% c. 9.36% d. 9.87% e. 10.67% (10.10) WACC Answer: b Diff: M . A company has determined that its optimal capital structure consists of 40 percent debt and 60 percent equity. Given the following information, calculate the firm's weighted average cost of capital.

53

rd = 6% Tax rate = 40% P0 = $25 Growth = 0% D0 = $2.00 a. b. c. d. e.

6.0% 6.2% 7.0% 7.2% 8.0%

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(10.10) WACC Answer: c Diff: M 54 . Johnson Industries finances its projects with 40 percent debt, 10 percent preferred stock, and 50 percent common stock. • • •

The company can issue bonds at a yield to maturity of 8.4 percent. The cost of preferred stock is 9 percent. The company's common stock currently sells for $30 a share.



The company's dividend is currently $2.00 a share (D0 = $2.00), and is expected to grow at a constant rate of 6 percent per year. • Assume that the flotation cost on debt and preferred stock is zero, and no new stock will be issued. • The company’s tax rate is 30 percent. What is the company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC)? a. 8.33% b. 9.32% c. 9.79% d. 9.99% e. 13.15% (10.10) WACC Answer: e Diff: M 55 . Dobson Dairies has a capital structure which consists of 60 percent long-term debt and 40 percent common stock. The company’s CFO has obtained the following information: • • •

The before-tax yield to maturity on the company’s bonds is 8 percent. The company’s common stock is expected to pay a $3.00 dividend at year end (D1 = $3.00), and the dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 7 percent a year. The common stock currently sells for $60 a share. Assume the firm will be able to use retained earnings to fund the equity portion of its capital budget. • The company’s tax rate is 40 percent. What is the company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC)? a. 12.00% b. 8.03% c. 9.34% d. 8.00% e. 7.68%

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Multiple part: (The following information applies to the next six problems.) Rollins Corporation is estimating its WACC. Its target capital structure is 20 percent debt, 20 percent preferred stock, and 60 percent common equity. Its bonds have a 12 percent coupon, paid semiannually, a current maturity of 20 years, and sell for $1,000. The firm could sell, at par, $100 preferred stock which pays a 12 percent annual dividend, but flotation costs of 5 percent would be incurred. Rollins' beta is 1.2, the risk-free rate is 10 percent, and the market risk premium is 5 percent. Rollins is a constantgrowth firm which just paid a dividend of $2.00, sells for $27.00 per share, and has a growth rate of 8 percent. The firm's policy is to use a risk premium of 4 percentage points when using the bond-yield-plus-risk-premium method to find rs. The firm's marginal tax rate is 40 percent. (10.2) Cost of debt 56 . What is Rollins' component cost of debt?

Answer: e

Diff: M

Answer: d

Diff: E

a. 10.0% b. 9.1% c. 8.6% d. 8.0% e. 7.2% (10.3) Cost of preferred stock 57 . What is Rollins' cost of preferred stock? a. b. c. d. e.

10.0% 11.0% 12.0% 12.6% 13.2%

(10.5) Cost of common stock: CAPM Answer: c Diff: E 58 . What is Rollins' cost of common stock (rs) using the CAPM approach? a. b. c. d. e.

13.6% 14.1% 16.0% 16.6% 16.9%

(10.6) Cost of common stock: DCF Answer: c Diff: E 59 . What is the firm's cost of common stock (rs) using the DCF approach? a. b. c. d. e.

13.6% 14.1% 16.0% 16.6% 16.9%

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(10.7) Cost of common stock: Risk premium Answer: c Diff: E 60 . What is Rollins' cost of common stock using the bond-yield-plus-riskpremium approach? a. b. c. d. e.

13.6% 14.1% 16.0% 16.6% 16.9%

(10.10) WACC 61 . What is Rollins' WACC? a. b. c. d. e.

Answer: a

Diff: E

13.6% 14.1% 16.0% 16.6% 16.9%

(The following information applies to the next three problems.) J. Ross and Sons Inc. has a target capital structure that calls for 40 percent debt, 10 percent preferred stock, and 50 percent common equity. The firm's current after-tax cost of debt is 6 percent, and it can sell as much debt as it wishes at this rate. The firm's preferred stock currently sells for $90 per share and pays a dividend of $10 per share; however, the firm will net only $80 per share from the sale of new preferred stock. Ross's common stock currently sells for $40 per share. The firm recently paid a dividend of $2 per share on its common stock, and investors expect the dividend to grow indefinitely at a constant rate of 10 percent per year. (10.3) Cost of preferred stock Answer: b 62 . What is the firm's cost of newly issued preferred stock, rps? a. b. c. d. e.

10.0% 12.5% 15.5% 16.5% 18.0%

(10.6) Cost of common stock . What is the firm's cost of common stock, rs?

63

a. b. c. d. e.

Page 16

Diff: E

Answer: c

Diff: E

10.0% 12.5% 15.5% 16.5% 18.0%

Chapter 10: Determining the Cost of Capital -

(10.10) WACC Answer: d . What is the firm's weighted average cost of capital (WACC)?

64

a. b. c. d. e.

Diff: E

9.5% 10.3% 10.8% 11.4% 11.9%

(10.6) Cost of equity Answer: a Diff: M 65 . Allison Engines Corporation has established a target capital structure of 40 percent debt and 60 percent common equity. The firm expects to earn $600 in after-tax income during the coming year, and it will retain 40 percent of those earnings. The current market price of the firm's stock is P0 = $28; its last dividend was D0 = $2.20, and its expected growth rate is 6 percent. Allison can issue new common stock at a 15 percent flotation cost. What will Allison's marginal cost of equity capital (not the WACC) be if it must fund a capital budget requiring $600 in total new capital? a. 15.8% b. 13.9% c. 7.9% d. 14.3% e. 9.7% (10.10) WACC Answer: b Diff: M 66 . Hilliard Corp. wants to calculate its weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The company’s CFO has collected the following information: • The company’s long-term bonds currently offer a yield to maturity of 8 percent.

• •

The company’s stock price is $32 per share (P0 = $32).

The company recently paid a dividend of $2 per share (D0 = $2.00). • The dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 6 percent a year (g = 6%). • The company pays a 10 percent flotation cost whenever it issues new common stock (F = 10%). • The company’s target capital structure is 75 percent equity and 25 percent debt. • The company’s tax rate is 40 percent. • The company anticipates issuing new common stock during the upcoming year. What is the company’s WACC? a. b. c. d. e.

10.67% 11.22% 11.47% 12.02% 12.56%

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Financial Calculator Section Multiple Choice: Problems Medium: (The following information applies to the next four problems. calculator required.)

Financial

You are employed by CGT, a Fortune 500 firm that is a major producer of chemicals and plastic goods: plastic grocery bags, styrofoam cups, and fertilizers. You are on the corporate staff as an assistant to the VicePresident of Finance. This is a position with high visibility and the opportunity for rapid advancement, providing you make the right decisions. Your boss has asked you to estimate the weighted average cost of capital for the company. Following are balance sheets and some information about CGT. Assets Current assets Net plant, property, and equipment

$38,000,000 $101,000,000

Total Assets

$139,000,000

Liabilities and Equity Accounts payable Accruals Current liabilities

$10,000,000 $9,000,000 $19,000,000

Long term debt (40,000 bonds, $1,000 face value) Total liabilities

$40,000,000 $59,000,000

Common Stock 10,000,000 shares) Retained Earnings Total shareholders equity

$30,000,000 $50,000,000 $80,000,000

Total liabilities and shareholders equity

$139,000,000

You check The Wall Street Journal and see that CGT stock is currently selling for $7.50 per share and that CGT bonds are selling for $889.50 per bond. These bonds have a 7.25 percent annual coupon rate, with semi-annual payments. The bonds mature in twenty years. The beta for your company is approximately equal to 1.1. The yield on a 6-month Treasury bill is 3.5 percent and the yield on a 20-year Treasury bond is 5.5 percent. The expected return on the stock market is 11.5 percent, but the stock market has had an average annual return of 14.5 percent during the past five years. CGT is in the 40 percent tax bracket.

Chapter 10: Determining the Cost of Capital

Page 19

(10.2) After-tax cost of debt Answer: d 67 . What is best estimate for the after-tax cost of debt for CGT? a. b. c. d. e.

Diff: M

2.52% 4.20% 4.35% 5.04% 5.37%

(10.5) CAPM cost of equity Answer: b Diff: M 68 . Using the CAPM approach, what is the best estimate of the cost of equity for CGT? a. b. c. d. e.

10.10% 12.10% 12.30% 15.40% 15.60%

(10.10) Weights for WACC Answer: d Diff: M 69 . Which of the following is the best estimate for the weights to be used when calculating the WACC? a. b. c. d. e.

we we we we we

= = = = =

57.6% 65.2% 66.7% 67.8% 72.4%

and and and and and

wd wd wd wd wd

= = = = =

42.4% 34.8% 33.3% 32.2% 27.6%

(10.10) WACC 70 . What is the best estimate of the WACC for CGT? a. b. c. d. e.

Answer: e

Diff: M

8.65% 8.92% 9.18% 9.75% 9.83%

(10.2) Component cost of debt Answer: b Diff: M 71 . Hamilton Company's 8 percent coupon rate, quarterly payment, $1,000 par value bond, which matures in 20 years, currently sells at a price of $686.86. The company's tax rate is 40 percent. Based on the nominal interest rate, not the EAR, what is the firm's component cost of debt for purposes of calculating the WACC? a. 3.05% b. 7.32% c. 7.36% d. 12.20% e. 12.26%

Page 20

Chapter 10: Determining the Cost of Capital -

(10.10) WACC Answer: a Diff: M 72 . A stock analyst has obtained the following information about J-Mart, a large retail chain: (1) The company has noncallable bonds with 20 years maturity remaining and a maturity value of $1,000. The bonds have a 12 percent annual coupon and currently sell at a price of $1,273.8564. (2) Over the past four years, the returns on the market and on J-Mart were as follows: Year 2006 2007 2008 2009

Market 12.0% 17.2 -3.8 20.0

J-Mart 14.5% 22.2 -7.5 24.0

(3) The current risk-free rate is 6.35 percent, and the expected return on the market is 11.35 percent. The company's tax rate is 35 percent. The company anticipates that its proposed investment projects will be financed with 70 percent debt and 30 percent equity. What is the company's estimated weighted average cost of capital (WACC)? a. 8.04% b. 9.00% c. 10.25% d. 12.33% e. 13.14%

Chapter 10: Determining the Cost of Capital

Page 21

CHAPTER 10 ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS

Page 22

Chapter 10: Determining the Cost of Capital -

1.

(10.1) Cost of capital

Answer: a

Diff: E

2.

(10.1) Capital

Answer: a

Diff: E

3.

(10.1) Component costs of capital

Answer: a

Diff: E

4.

(10.2) Cost of debt

Answer: b

Diff: E

5.

(10.2) Cost of debt

Answer: b

Diff: E

6.

(10.3) Cost of preferred stock

Answer: b

Diff: E

7.

(10.4) Cost of common stock

Answer: a

Diff: E

8.

(10.4) Retained earnings

Answer: b

Diff: E

9.

(10.4) Retained earnings

Answer: b

Diff: E

10.

(10.4) Cost of internal equity

Answer: b

Diff: E

11.

(10.4) Cost of external equity

Answer: b

Diff: E

12.

(10.4) Cost of external equity

Answer: b

Diff: E

13.

(10.4) Flotation cost and capital choice

Answer: b

Diff: E

14.

(10.10) Cost of capital

Answer: b

Diff: E

15.

(10.2) After-tax cost of debt

Answer: b

Diff: M

16.

(10.2) After-tax cost of debt

Answer: a

Diff: M

17.

(10.4) Cost of equity

Answer: b

Diff: M

18.

(10.5) Inflation effects

Answer: b

Diff: M

19.

(10.10) WACC

Answer: c

Diff: M

20.

(10.10) WACC

Answer: a

Diff: M

21.

(10.10) WACC and tax rate

Answer: b

Diff: M

22.

(10.10) Specific source capital cost

Answer: b

Diff: M

23.

(10.1) Capital components

Answer: c

Diff: E

24.

(10.1) Capital components

Answer: e

Diff: E

25.

(10.1) Capital components

Answer: c

Diff: E

26 .

(10.6) DCF cost of equity estimation

Answer: b

Diff: E

27.

(10.10) Capital components

Answer: d

Diff: E

28.

(10.10) Capital components Answer: a The debt cost used to calculate a firm's WACC is r d(1 - T). constant but T increases, then the term (1 - T) decreases and the entire equation, rd(1 - T), decreases. Statement b is

Diff: E If rd remains the value of false; if a

company's stock price increases, and all else remains constant, then the dividend yield decreases and rs decreases. This can be seen from the equation rs = D1/P0 + g. Statement c is false, since an increase in interest rates will cause an increase in the cost of common stock, rs. Consequently, statements d and e are false too. 29.

(10.10) Cost of capital components and WACC

Answer: c

Diff: E

WACC measures the marginal after-tax cost of capital; therefore, statement a is false. The after-tax cost of debt financing is less than the after-tax cost of equity financing; therefore, statement b is false. The correct choice is statement c. 30.

(10.10) WACC and capital components

Answer: a

Diff: E

Statement a is correct; the other statements are false. Statement b is incorrect; WACC is an average of debt and equity financing. Since debt financing is cheaper and is adjusted downward for taxes, it should, when averaged with equity, cause the WACC to be less than the cost of equity financing. Statement c is incorrect; WACC is calculated on an after-tax basis. Statement d is incorrect; the WACC is based on marginal, not embedded, costs. Statement e is incorrect; the cost of issuing new common stock is greater than the cost of retained earnings. 31 .

(10.11) Factors influencing WACC Answer: a Diff: E Statement a is correct; the other statements are false. If RPM decreases, the cost of equity will be reduced. Answers b through e will all increase the company’s WACC.

32.

(10.5) CAPM cost of equity estimation

Answer: e

Diff: M

33.

(10.6) CAPM and DCF estimation

Answer: a

Diff: M

34.

(10.8) Cost of equity estimation

Answer: d

Diff: M

35.

(10.8) CAPM cost of equity estimation

Answer: e

Diff: M

36.

(10.8) Miscellaneous concepts

Answer: a

Diff: M

37.

(10.8) Miscellaneous concepts Answer: a Diff: M Statement a is correct. Most preferred stock is owned by corporations which receive a 70 percent exclusion of dividends. Consequently, the before-tax coupons on preferred stock are often lower than the before-tax coupons on debt, despite the fact that preferred stock is riskier than debt. All the other statements are false.

38.

(10.10) Capital components

39.

(10.10) Capital components Answer: e Diff: M Statement e is correct. Unlike interest expense on debt, preferred dividends are not deductible, hence there are no tax savings associated with the use of preferred stock. The component costs of WACC should reflect the costs of new financing, not historical measures. The cost of common stock would decline, not increase, if the market risk premium and risk-free rate decline.

40.

(10.10) Cost of capital estimation

Answer: c

Diff: M

41.

(10.10) WACC

Answer: d

Diff: M

Answer: d

Diff: M

Statements a and c are both correct; therefore, statement d is the correct choice. Statement a recites the definition of the weighted average cost of capital. Statement c is correct because rd = rRF + LP + MRP + DRP while rs = rRF + (rM - rRF)b. If rRF increases then the values for rd and rs will increase. 42.

(10.10) WACC concepts Answer: c Diff: M Statement c is the correct choice. A tax rate increase would lead to a decrease in the after-tax cost of debt and, consequently, the firm's WACC would decrease.

43.

(10.12) Risk treatment

44.

(10.14) WACC concepts Statement e is correct. After-tax account for the tax deductibility The impact of accounts payable is marginal, not the embedded, cost of

45.

(10.6) Cost of common stock The cost of common stock is:

Answer: e

Diff: M

Answer: e Diff: M cash flows must be considered in order to of interest payments on corporate debt. reflected in cash flows, not WACC. The capital is the relevant cost of capital. Answer: d

Diff: E

rs = $1(1.06)/$20 + 0.06 = 0.053 + 0.06 = 0.113 = 11.3%. 46.

(10.6) Cost of common stock

Answer: b

Diff: E

Answer: e

Diff: E

48.

(10.9) WACC with Flotation Costs Answer: a WACC = wdrd(1 - T) + wcere. rd is given = 9%. Find re: re = D1/[P0(1 - F)] + g = $0.8/[$25(1 - 0.1)] + 0.09 = 0.125556. Now you can calculate WACC: WACC = (0.3)(0.09)(0.6) + (0.7)(0.125556) = 10.41%.

Diff: E

49.

(10.5) Cost of common stock Answer: d The cost of common equity as calculated from the CAPM is rs = rRF + (rM - rRF)b = 5% + (6%)1.2 = 12.2%.

Diff: M

(10.6) Cost of common stock

Answer: b

Diff: M

Answer: c

Diff: M

$2.00(1.05 ) rs = + 5% = 9.2%. $50 47.

(10.6) Cost of common stock

$0.90(1.05) rs = + 0.05 = 0.1600 = 16.00%. $8.59

50 .

rs = 51 .

$2.00(1.0 6) + 0.06% = 10.24% ≈ 10.2%. $5 0

(10.6) WACC and dividend growth rate Solve for rs: WACC = 11.5% = wdrd(1 - T) + wcers 11.5% = 0.45(0.09)(0.70) + 0.55rs rs = 15.75%. Solve for g:

15.75% = D1/P0 + g 15.75% = $5/$45 + g

g = 4.64%. 52.

(10.10) WACC Answer: d Diff: M Weights should be based on the target capital structure: wd = 40% and we = 60%. The cost of debt should be based on the yield of 11.11%. WACC = 0.60 (12%) + 0.4 (1-.4) (11.11%) = 9.87%.

53.

(10.10) WACC Find the cost of common stock: rs = D1/P0 + g = $2(1.0)/$25 + 0%; rs = 0.08 = 8%.

54 .

Answer: b

Diff: M

Finally, calculate WACC, using rs = 0.08, and rd = 0.06, so WACC = (D/A)(1 - Tax rate)rd + (E/A)rs = 0.4(1 - 0.4)(0.06) + 0.6(0.08) = 0.0624 ≈ 6.2%. (10.10) WACC The cost of common stock is:

Answer: c Diff: M rs = D1/P0 + g = $2.12/$30 + 0.06 = 13.07%.

The cost to the company of the bonds is the YTM multiplied by 1 minus the tax rate: rd = YTM(1 - T) = 8.4%(0.7) = 5.88%. The cost of the preferred is given as 9%. The weighted average cost of capital is then WACC = wd(rd) + wps(rps) + wce(rs) WACC = 0.4(5.88%) + 0.1(9%) + 0.5(13.07%) = 9.79%. 55.

(10.10) WACC

Answer: e

Diff: M

The firm will not be issuing new equity because there are adequate retained earnings available to fund available projects. Therefore, WACC should be calculated using rs. rs = D1/P0 + g = $3.00/$60.00 + 0.07 = 0.12 = 12%. WACC = wdrd(1 - T) + wcers = (0.6)(0.08)(1 - 0.4) + (0.4)(0.12) = 0.0768 = 7.68%. 56.

(10.2) Cost of debt Time line: 0 rd / 2 = ? 1

Answer: e

40 6-month ├───────────┼─────┼────────┼─────────┼───∙∙∙───────┤ Periods PMT = 60 VB = 1,000

2

3

4

60

60

60

Diff: M

60 FV = 1,000

Since the bond sells at par of $1,000, its YTM and coupon rate (12 percent) are equal. Thus, the before-tax cost of debt to Rollins is 12 percent. The after-tax cost of debt equals: rd,After-tax = 12.0%(1 - 0.40) = 7.2%. Financial calculator solution:

Inputs: N = 40; PV = -1,000; PMT = 60; FV = 1,000; Output: I = 6.0% = rd/2. rd = 6.0% × 2 = 12%. rd(1 - T) = 12.0%(0.6) = 7.2%. 57. 58 .

59.

(10.3) Cost of preferred stock Answer: d Cost of preferred stock: rps = $12/$100(0.95) = 12.6%.

Diff: E

(10.5) Cost of common stock: CAPM Cost of common stock (CAPM approach): rs = 10% + (5%)1.2 = 16.0%.

Answer: c

Diff: E

(10.6) Cost of common stock: DCF Cost of common stock (DCF approach):

Answer: c

Diff: E

(10.7) Cost of common stock: Risk premium Answer: c Cost of common stock (Bond yield-plus-risk-premium approach): rs = 12.0% + 4.0% = 16.0%.

Diff: E

$2.00(1.08) + 8% = 16.0%. $27

rs = 60 . 61 .

62.

63 .

(10.10) WACC Answer: a Diff: E WACC = wdrd(1 - T) + wpsrps + wcers = 0.2(12.0%)(0.6) + 0.2(12.6%) + 0.6(16.0%) = 13.56% ≈ 13.6%. (10.3) Cost of preferred stock $10 rps = = 12.5%. $80

Answer: b

Diff: E

(10.6) Cost of common stock

Answer: c

Diff: E

Answer: d

Diff: E

$2.00(1.10) + 0.10 = 15.5%. $40.00

rs = 64. 65 .

(10.10) WACC

(10.6) Cost of equity Answer: a Diff: M Calculate the retained earnings break point: Given: Net income = $600; Debt = 0.4; Equity = 0.6; Dividend payout = 0.6. Break pointRE = $600(1 - 0.6)/0.6 = $400. Allison will need new equity capital; capital budget exceeds Break pointRE. Use the dividend growth model to calculate re: re =

D0 ( 1 + g) $2.20( 1.06) + g = + 0.06 $28( 1 − 0.15) P0 ( 1 − F )

= 0.0979 + 0.06 = 0.1579 ≈ 15.8%. 66.

(10.10) WACC Answer: b Diff: M The correct answer is b, 11.22%. As there are no retained earnings, the equity portion of the capital budget must be funded using new common equity. WACC = Wd(rd)(1 - T) + wce(re) = 0.25(0.08)(1 - 0.4) + 0.75[($2.00 x 1.06)/($32(1 - 0.1)) + 0.06]

= 0.25(0.0480) + 0.75(0.1336) = 0.1122 = 11.22%. 67.

(10.2) After-tax cost of debt N=40

I=? PV=-889.50 I=4.2

Answer: d

PMT=36.25

Diff: M

FV=1,000

rd = 4.2(2) = 8.4%. rd after-tax = 8.4%(1-0.40) = 5.04%. 68.

(10.5) CAPM Cost of Equity

Answer: b

Diff: M

rs = 5.5% + 1.1(11.5%-5.5%) = 12.10%. 69.

(10.10) Weights for WACC Answer: d Diff: M Use market values for estimating the weights, since target values are not available. Market value of equity = Ve = $7.50(10 million) = $75 million. Market value of debt = Vd = $889.50(40,000) = $35.58 million. We = $75/($75+$35.58) = 0.678 = 67.8%. Wd = $35.58/($75+$35.58) = 0.322 = 32.2%.

70.

(10.10) WACC WACC = wcers + wdrd(1 - T)

Answer: e

Diff: M

Answer: b

Diff: M

WACC = 0.678 (12.10%) + 0.322 (8.4%(1-0.40)) WACC = 0.678 (12.10%) + 0.322 (5.04%) = 9.83%. 71 .

(10.2) Component cost of debt Time line: 0 rd = ?

1

2

3

4

80

├────────┼──────┼───────┼───────┼───∙∙∙─────┤Quarters

PMT = 20 VB = 686.86

20

20

20

20 FV = 1,000

Financial calculator solution: Calculate the nominal YTM of bond: Inputs: N = 80; PV = -686.86; PMT = 20; FV = 1,000. Output: I = 3.05% periodic rate. Nominal annual rate = 3.05% × 4 = 12.20%. Calculate rd after-tax: rd,AT = 12.20%(1 - T) = 12.20%(1 - 0.4) = 7.32%. 72 .

(10.10) WACC Answer: a Diff: M WACC = [(0.7)(rd)(1 - T)] + [(0.3)(rs)]. a. Use bond information to solve for rd: N = 20; PV = -1,273.8564; PMT = 120; FV = 1,000. Solve for rd = 9%. b. To solve for rs, we can use the SML equation, but we need to find beta. Using Market and J-Mart return information and a calculator's regression feature we find b = 1.3585. So rs = 0.0635 + (0.1135 - 0.0635)(1.3585) = 0.1314 = 13.14%. c. Plug these values into the WACC equation and solve:

WACC = [(0.7)(0.09)(1 - 0.35)] + [(0.3)(0.1314)] = 0.0804 = 8.04%.

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