Cost of Capital 2010

September 12, 2017 | Author: Amit Pandey | Category: Cost Of Capital, Beta (Finance), Capital Asset Pricing Model, Discounted Cash Flow, Yield (Finance)
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Cost of Capital 2010...

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COST OF CAPITAL Trends, Tools, and Applications Jason MacMorran

Objectives and Outline

Introduction Objectives • Discuss key components and concepts used to determine cost of capital • Discuss recent trends and issues related to cost of capital components • Illustrate the application of each component of cost of capital • Valuation focus

Introduction Outline I. Introduction and Key Concepts II. Risk-free Rate III. Equity Risk Premium IV. Size Premium V. Industry Adjustments VI. Company Specific Risk Premium VII. The Big Picture VIII.Special Topics IX. Questions and Comments

Introduction

Introduction Just Semantics? • Cost of capital - is the expected rate of return that market participants require in order to attract funds to a particular investment • Sometimes referred to as expected or required rate of return, discount rate, or opportunity cost of capital

• Cost of equity • Weighted average cost of capital • Capitalization rate

Introduction Core Components • • • •

Risk-free Rate Equity Risk Premium Size Risk Premium Industry Adjustment – Industry Risk Premium – Beta

• Company Specific Risk Premium

• Capital Structure – Debt Capital – Preferred Equity – Common Equity

Introduction Build-Up Method COE = Rf + ERP + SP + IRP+ CSRP • Inputs

– – – – – –

COE = Cost of equity Rf = Risk-free rate ERP = Equity risk premium SP = Size risk premium IRP = Industry risk premium CSRP = Company specific risk premium

Introduction Modified Capital Asset Pricing Model COE = Rf + (ERP x β)+ SP + CSRP

• Inputs

– COE = Cost of equity – Rf = Risk-free rate – ERP = Equity risk premium – β = Beta coefficient – SP = Size risk premium – CSRP = Company specific risk premium

Risk-free Rate

Risk-free Rate Overview • Most cost of capital models assume a single, riskless asset • Theoretically, the rate of return expected from an investment with absolutely no default risk and no reinvestment risk • Represents the theoretical minimum for expected rates of return

• Components of the risk-free rate: • Rental rate – return for lending funds • Inflation – expected rate of inflation during the lending period • Maturity risk – risk of change in value during the lending period

Risk-free Rate Rates and Sources •

In reality, no investment is truly riskfree •



The most commonly accepted “riskfree” rates are derived from US treasury security yields •



Even the least risky investments carry a very small amount of risk

Federal Reserve Statistical Release

Which type and term of US treasury security should be used in a valuation? •

20-year Treasury Bonds http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/H15/data.htm

Risk-free Rate Application • What term? – Horizon of the Treasury bond should match the horizon of what is being valued. Horizon is a function of the investment, not the investor (i.e. indifferent to investor holding period expectation) • Why 20 year maturity instead of 30? – It is ‘baked into’ SBBI numbers! • Treasury bond or Treasury STRIP? – Bond is typically more appropriate if the asset spins off cash periodically; if the asset provides a single payoff at the end of its term, then a STRIP yield may be more appropriate • Aren’t risk-free rates without controversy?

Risk-free Rate Economic Considerations • Treasury rates declined rapidly Q4 2008 • Was this decline a change in expectations regarding inflation? Real interest? Flight to quality? Panic? • Should the decline be adjusted for? • Roger Grabowski (Duff & Phelps) suggested that one should ‘ignore’ the 12/31/08 spot yield on the 20-year treasury and use a longer term average (say, 4.5%-5.0%) • Jim Harrington (Morningstar) suggested that by “adding 1% or 2% to your risk free rate because you feel risk free rates are too low” assumed that: • Markets are not efficient • Present yields would regress to previous levels

Historical Risk-free Rates of Return 1995 - 2010 8.00%

7.00%

Rate of Return

6.00%

5.00%

4.00%

20-Year Treasury Bonds

3.00%

12/31/2008 2.00%

1.00%

Today

0.00%

Data Source: Federal Reserve Statistical Release

Risk-free Rate Alternatives? • Are US treasury securities truly the least risky investment available? • Rarely called into question until catastrophic events (i.e. – war, recession, currency devaluation, etc.) • Backed by good-faith of US government • May raise taxes or issue currency to avoid default

• Moody’s threatened to downgrade US rating of AAA in early 2010 due to growing budget deficit • Are any alternatives available? Greek debt, anyone?

Equity Risk Premium

Equity Risk Premium The Basics • Equity risk premium – the additional return an investor expects to receive as compensation for the risk associated with investing in equities as opposed to investing in riskless assets (Morningstar). • Basic Elements – Stock market return (Rm) – Risk-free rate (Rf) – Time period

ERP = Rm - Rf

• Not observable, must be estimated • Neutral to minority and control considerations

Equity Risk Premium Estimation Sources • Morningstar – Historical – Supply Side • Duff & Phelps • Investor surveys • Implied from markets

Equity Risk Premium Morningstar Historical Equity Risk Premium • Commonly cited ERP • 6.67% - December 2009

– Based on: • Large company stocks, usually S&P 500 – Can be calculated on other indices

• Risk-free rate is 20 year Treasury income return – Income return only is used in calculating ERP, but yield is appropriate in developing forward looking cost of capital

– Time-Period • 1926 – 2009

Average Historical Equity Risk Premium, Morningstar 1926 - 2009 30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%

-5.00%

Data Source: SBBI Valuation Edition 2010 Yearbook

Average Historical Equity Risk Premium, Morningstar Varying Starting Time Periods (1926 - 2009) 8.00% 6.67% 6.00%

6.66% 6.04% 5.40% 4.13%

4.97%

4.12%

4.00%

2.00%

0.00%

-2.00% -3.75% -4.00%

Data Source: SBBI Valuation Edition 2010 Yearbook

Equity Risk Premium Morningstar Historical Equity Risk Premium • Relies on a “future equals the past” assumption • Why 1926? – Center for Research in Security Prices (CRSP) started keeping data in 1926. – Conscious effort to include extremely volatile 1920’s and 1930’s

• Analysis reveals sensitivity to ‘start’ date • Historical ERP receiving more criticisms lately – Many articles on ‘downward adjustments’ over past few years – Delaware Court of Chancery decision in Global GT v. Golden Telcom (4/23/10) failed to adopt Morningstar historical ERP in favor of lower ERP

Equity Risk Premium Morningstar Supply Side Equity Risk Premium • Published first in 2005 Yearbook • 5.2% - December 2009

– Based on: • Large company stocks, usually S&P 500 – Can be calculated on other indices

• Risk-free rate is 20 year Treasury income return – Income return only is used in calculating ERP, but yield is appropriate in developing forward looking cost of capital

– Time-Period • 1926 – 2009

Equity Risk Premium Morningstar Supply Side Equity Risk Model • Forward looking model, using historical data • General concept – ‘Supply’ of market returns generated by productivity of corporations – Investors should not expect a return much different than that produced by corporations – Therefore, over the long-run, equity returns should approximate the ‘supply’ of market returns

Equity Risk Premium Morningstar Supply Side Equity Risk Model • ‘Historical’ returns measured by: – – – –

Inflation Income return Growth in real earnings per share (EPS) Growth in Price / Earnings (P/E)

• Supply model eliminates growth in P/E • “Growth in P/E is a reflection of investor’s changing predictions of future earnings growth. The past supply of corporate growth is expected to continue, however, a change in investor’s predictions is not.” Ibbotson.

Comparison: Morningstar Historical vs. Supply Equity Risk Premium 8.50% 8.00% 7.50% 7.00% 6.50% 6.00% 5.50% 5.00% 4.50% 4.00%

Supply

Historic

Data Source: SBBI Valuation Edition 2010 Yearbook

Equity Risk Premium Duff & Phelps • Primarily a size premium study • Large stock ERP 4.25% - December 2009

– Based on: • Companies in NYSE, AMEX, and NASDAQ • Risk-free rate is 20 year Treasury income return – Income return only is used in calculating ERP, but yield is appropriate in developing forward looking cost of capital

– Time-Period • 1963 – 2009

Equity Risk Premium Duff & Phelps • Based on CRSP and Compustat data • Excludes financial services companies • Excludes companies – Lacking five years of publicly traded price history – Sales below $1M in any of the previous five years – Negative five-year average EBITDA

• Creates a separate ‘high-financial risk’ group • Why 1963? – Compustat database established in 1963

Comparison of Equity Risk Premiums Morningstar (SBBI) vs. Duff & Phelps 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% 2005

2006

SBBI - Historic

2007 SBBI - Supply

2008

2009

Duff & Phelps

Data Sources: SBBI Valuation Edition Yearbooks and Duff & Phelps Risk Premium Reports

Equity Risk Premium Survey Investors • Survey Investors – Advantages: • Direct financial data from actual marketplace – Disadvantages: • No constraints on range of data responses • Impractical • Unpredictable – Source examples: • Ivo Welch • John Graham and Campbell Harvey • Greenwich Associates

Equity Risk Premium Is ERP Conditional? • Unconditional vs. Conditional

– Unconditional • Static estimate • Example: Long-term historic (Morningstar, 6.67%) • Represents average ERP over an entire business cycle

– Conditional • ERP is cyclical during the business cycle – Higher ERP in bear markets – Lower ERP in bull markets

• Conditional ERP assumed to reflect the current market conditions • ERP is within a reasonable range

Comparison: Average Historical Equity Risk Premium (Morningstar) to Average S&P 500 Returns Time Period (1951 - 2009) 40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

-10.00%

-20.00%

-30.00%

ERP (start 1951)

S&P 500 Return

Data Source: SBBI Valuation Edition 2010 Yearbook

Equity Risk Premium Implied Equity Risk Premium • Calculated from market expectations (i.e. conditional) • Aswath Damodaran, Stern School of Business (NYU) posts on his website – http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/

• Implied from S&P 500 4.73% - December 2009

Comparison: Conditional Equity Risk Premium and S&P 500 January, 2009 through September, 2010

ERP%

S&P 500

9.00%

1,400

8.00%

1,200

7.00%

1,000

6.00% 5.00%

800

4.00%

600

3.00%

400

2.00%

200

1.00%

ERP

Sep-10

Aug-10

Jul-10

Jun-10

May-10

Apr-10

Mar-10

Feb-10

Jan-10

Dec-09

Nov-09

Oct-09

Sep-09

Aug-09

Jul-09

Jun-09

May-09

Apr-09

Mar-09

Feb-09

0 Jan-09

0.00%

S&P 500

Data Source: http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/

Equity Risk Premium Summary and Application • From the same data, different ERPs! • Many articles and now cases are starting to embrace ERPs lower than Morningstar historical • If you use Duff & Phelps for a build-up, you are starting with a 4.25% ERP • On reducing ERPs: “While some of these theories are compelling in an academic framework, most do little to prove that the equity risk premium is too high.” Ibbotson • And the data says…

Comparison: Equity Risk Premiums As of December 31, 2009

7.0% 6.0% 5.0% 4.0% 3.0% 2.0% 1.0% 0.0%

6.7% 5.2% 4.3%

4.8%

Size Premium

Size Premium Overview • Compensates for the “size effect”, or empirical observations that smaller size is associated with greater risk and, therefore, higher cost of capital • Size premiums are utilized because CAPM does not fully account for the higher returns of small company stocks • Two primary studies for estimating the size premium • Morningstar • Duff & Phelps • Not going to discuss general criticisms of the existence of the size premium (information asymmetries, liquidity, delisting bias, etc)

Size Premium Morningstar Overview • Calculates size premiums based on the market capitalization of publicly-traded companies • Stock returns of companies traded on the NYSE, AMEX, and NASDAQ • Uses CRSP database • Data back to 1926

Decile 1 - Largest

$

329,725,255 Exxon Mobil Corp.

3

14,691,668 Sysco Corp. American International 5,936,147 Group Inc.

4

3,414,634 Resmed Inc.

5

6

2,384,026 Mirant Corp. Cypress Semiconductor 1,600,169 corp.

7

1,063,308 Enersys

2

8

• Segregates companies into 10 deciles based on each company’s market capitalization

Market Cap of Largest Company Largest Company (in thousands)

9 10 - Smallest

684,790 Live Nation Inc. American 431,256 Reprographics Co. Quicksilver Gas 214,111 Services LP

Data Source: SBBI Valuation Edition 2010 Yearbook

Size Premium Morningstar Overview • Morningstar calculates certain metrics for each decile • • • • •

Beta Arithmetic Mean Return Actual Return in Excess of Riskless Rate CAPM Return in Excess of Riskless Rate Return in Excess of CAPM

• The appropriate size premium is the Return in Excess of CAPM (beta adjusted)

Size Premium Morningstar Overview • Morningstar size premia have been adjusted for beta • The portion of excess returns that can be explained by higher betas are not in the size premium

• Some analysts suggest using a ‘non-beta’ adjusted small stock premium in a build-up model • Calculated as arithmetic mean of small company stock return less arithmetic mean of large company stock return, or for decile 10: 20.85% (small) – 11.85% (large) = 9% (see Table 7.5 SBBI) • Morningstar recommends against this, as it assumes the subject company has the same beta as the portfolio of small stocks and typically overstates the cost of capital

Size Premium Morningstar Data Beta

Arithmetic Mean Return (%)

Actual Return in Excess of Riskless Rate (%)

CAPM Return in Excess of Riskless Rate (%)

Size Premium (Return in Excess of CAPM)(%)

1 - Largest

0.91

10.90

5.72

6.09

-0.37

2

1.03

12.81

7.64

6.90

0.74

3

1.10

13.36

8.18

7.33

0.85

4

1.12

13.82

8.65

7.50

1.15

5

1.16

14.59

9.41

7.72

1.69

6

1.18

14.81

9.63

7.90

1.73

7

1.24

15.19

10.01

8.28

1.73

8

1.30

16.33

11.15

8.67

2.49

9

1.35

17.01

11.84

8.99

2.85

10 - Smallest

1.41

20.85

15.68

9.39

6.28

Decile

Data Source: SBBI Valuation Edition 2010 Yearbook

Size Premium Morningstar’s 10th Decile • Morningstar breaks down decile 10 for further analysis • Split to 10a/10b in 2001 • Split to w,x,y,z in 2010 • Observations – Disproportionately high number of companies in 10z – 10z may represent small market cap, but not small size

Decile

Recent Number of Companies

Market Capitalization of Largest Company (in thousands)

Company Name

395

$ 214,111

Quicksilver Gas Services, LP

10w

163

214,111

Quicksilver Gas Services, LP

10x

232

169,497

Landry's Restaurants, Inc.

1382

123,516

Lee Enterprises

302

123,516

Lee Enterprises

76,052

Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation A

10a

10b 10y

10z

1080

Data Source: SBBI Valuation Edition 2010 Yearbook

Size Premium Morningstar Data (10th Decile Breakdown Included) Beta

Arithmetic Mean Return (%)

Actual Return in Excess of Riskless Rate (%)

1 - Largest

0.91

10.90

2

1.03

3

5.72

CAPM Return in Excess of Riskless Rate (%) 6.09

Size Premium (Return in Excess of CAPM)(%) -0.37

12.81

7.64

6.90

0.74

1.10

13.36

8.18

7.33

0.85

4

1.12

13.82

8.65

7.50

1.15

5

1.16

14.59

9.41

7.72

1.69

6

1.18

14.81

9.63

7.90

1.73

7

1.24

15.19

10.01

8.28

1.73

8

1.30

16.33

11.15

8.67

2.49

9

1.35

17.01

11.84

8.99

2.85

10 - Smallest

1.41

20.85

15.68

9.39

6.28

10a

1.42

19.10

13.92

9.47

4.45

10w

1.39

18.33

13.15

9.30

3.85

10x

1.45

19.78

14.60

9.69

4.91

1.38

24.39

19.21

9.20

10.01

10y

1.40

23.58

18.40

9.35

9.05

10z

1.35

26.23

21.05

8.99

12.06

Decile

10b

Data Source: SBBI Valuation Edition 2010 Yearbook

Size Premium Criticisms of Morningstar • Market Value of Equity as only measure of size – ‘Large’ companies with small market capitalization (say, distressed companies) may dwell in 10th decile

• Does not exclude distressed companies • Breaking down the smallest decile lowers the statistical significance of the results compared to the whole decile • Number of companies in 10th decile (1,777 as of 2009) – – – –

1926 – 52 companies 1950 – 100 companies 1980 – 685 companies 1990 – 1,814 companies

Size Premium Duff & Phelps Overview • Duff & Phelps, LLC’s Risk Premium Report has gained broader acceptance in recent years, particularly related to estimating size premiums • Duff & Phelps estimates size premiums using eight measurements, not just market capitalization • Market capitalization is a function of the discount rate and, therefore, a circular calculation • Large, highly leveraged companies may have small market capitalizations

Size Premium Duff & Phelps Overview • Based on CRSP and Compustat data • Excludes financial services companies • Excludes companies – Lacking five years of publicly traded price history – Sales below $1M in any of the previous five years – Negative five-year average EBITDA

• Creates a separate ‘high-financial risk’ group • Why 1963? – Compustat database established in 1963

Size Premium Duff & Phelps Overview • Data is broken into 25 portfolios on eight measures of size: • • • • • • • •

Market value of equity Book value of equity Five-year average net income Market value of invested capital Total assets Five-year average EBITDA Net sales Number of employees

Size Premium Duff & Phelps Overview • Report contains several exhibits, including • A-1 to A-8 – Premium Over Risk-free Rate; for use in buildup model • B-1 to B-8 – Premium Over CAPM; for use in MCAPM

• Each exhibit is data intensive, including • • • •

Portfolio ranks and average size value Number of companies per portfolio Multiple statistical measures Average capital structure

Size Premium Duff & Phelps Data

Data Source: Duff & Phelps Risk Premiums Report

Size Premium Application of Duff & Phelps • Build-up Example - traditional COE = Rf + ERP + SP + IRP+ CSRP

• Build-up Example – Duff & Phelps COE = Rf + RM+S + IRP+ CSRP

• RM+S = ERP plus risk premium for size, or premium over risk-free rate

Size Premium Duff & Phelps – Build-up Example, book value • Select your ‘portfolio’ by size • Assume book value is $25M, therefore portfolio 25

• Find appropriate risk premium • Smoothed average risk premium for 25th portfolio = 11.08% • Arithmetic average risk premium for 25th portfolio = 11.24%

• Regression formula for smoothed premiums available to extrapolate risk premiums • Smoothed premium = 15.190% - 2.296% x log (book value) • 15.190% - 2.296% x log(25) = 11.98%

Size Premium Applying Duff & Phelps - Caveats • Smoothed average risk premium is typically most appropriate • However, at the smallest and largest ends of the data, average premiums may ‘jump’ off the smoothed line (see graph on next slide) • Be careful using regression formula on companies significantly outside the range of Duff & Phelps data

Size Premium Applying Duff & Phelps - Caveats

Data Source: Duff & Phelps Risk Premiums Report

Size Premium Applying Duff & Phelps – Caveats

• Grabowski: “…be cautious about extrapolating a statistical relationship far beyond the range of the data used in the statistical analysis.” Data Source: Duff & Phelps Risk Premiums Report

Size Premium Duff & Phelps – Consistency Adjustments • As mentioned earlier, if you use Duff & Phelps unadjusted, you are accepting a 4.25% ERP; if you believe ERP is 5.00%, you make an adjustment to the cost of capital: Adjustment for ERP = 5.00% - 4.25% = 0.75%

• A similar adjustment is made for industry risk premiums; if your SBBI IRP is 2.00% (based on SBBI ERP of 6.7%), you make an adjustment for the new ERP: Adjusted IRP = 2.00% x (5.0%/6.7%) = 1.49%

Size Premium Comparison of the Studies Components

Morningstar

Duff & Phelps

Historical data

Starts in 1926

Starts in 1963

Underlying avg. historical ERP

6.67%

4.25%

Underlying avg. historical RFR

5.18%

6.96%

Number of size groupings

10 deciles

25 portfolios

Avg. market capitalization of smallest grouping

$87 million (10th decile)

$95 million (25th portfolio)

Distressed companies

Included

Included in separate database

Delisted companies

Excluded

Included at assumed 30% loss

Size measures

Market capitalization

8 measures

Breakdown of smallest grouping

Yes, into 2 or 4 groupings with premiums

Yes, into 5,25,50,75, & 90th percentiles without premiums

Industry Adjustments

Industry Adjustments Overview • Two primary ‘adjustments’ – Morningstar IRP for build-up – Beta in MCAPM

• Generally speaking, adjustment: – Greater than zero = riskier than the market – Equal to zero = same risk as the market – Less than zero = less risky than the market

Industry Adjustments Morningstar IRP • Listed by 2, 3, and 4 digit SIC codes (see Table 3-5 of current Yearbook) • Based on full information beta estimates (basically a ‘peer group’ average beta) • Screening criteria: – – – –

At least 36 months of return data Sales greater than $1M Market capitalization of at least $10,000 Five or more ‘participants’ per SIC code

Industry Adjustments Morningstar IRP IRPi = (Ri x ERP) – ERP • IRPi = the expected risk premium for industry i, or the amount by which investors expect the future return of the industry to exceed the overall market return. • Ri = the risk index for industry i • ERP = the expected equity risk premium

• Morningstar IRP’s are based on historical ERP (6.7%); if you use a different ERP, consider adjusting IRP

Industry Adjustments Morningstar IRP Application • Define industry and SIC code; example, grocery store – Two digit SIC – 54, Food Stores, IRP = -3.46% (20 observations) – Three digit SIC – 541, Grocery Stores, IRP = -3.43% (18) – Four digit SIC – 5411, Grocery Stores, IRP = -3.47% (17)

• Add to build-up model • Generally speaking: – More observations are better (remember, 5 is minimum) – Granularity of SIC code is better (four digit better than two digit all things being equal)

Industry Adjustments Morningstar IRP Criticisms • Some industries really don’t have enough observations • Some data doesn’t make sense on face value – Restaurants (SIC 5812) have IRP of -0.65%; less risky than the market? – Who are these companies?

• Companies in a particular SIC code may be less like the subject company than you think

Industry Adjustments Morningstar IRP Company List Industry Premia Company List Report available at http://corporate.morningstar.com/IRP

Industry Adjustments Beta Overview • Beta is a measure of the systematic risk of a security, i.e. beta measures a security’s sensitivity to the market as a whole • It is estimated by regressing the excess returns of a security against the market’s excess returns. • Beta estimation is a complex subject; we’ll discuss major points of contention – – – –

Sources and market proxies Time period and frequency Adjustment factors Levered or unlevered

Industry Adjustments Beta Sources • Common sources – – – – – – –

Bloomberg Compustat Capital IQ ValueLine Morningstar (Beta Book and Cost of Capital Book) Barra Independent calculations from stock prices • Covariance of stock and market returns / variance of market returns

• Google, Reuters, Yahoo, etc. may reference the above sources

Industry Adjustments Beta Market Proxies • CAPM says appropriate market proxy is the entire market of all risky assets; however, not a very practical market • Theoretically, the broader the index, the better the beta estimation; however, studies have shown market proxy to have a minor impact • Major sources – – – –

Bloomberg – select from over 20 series, S&P 500 default Compustat and Morningstar – S&P 500 Capital IQ – select from over 8 series, S&P 500 default ValueLine – NYSE

Industry Adjustments Beta Time Period • Ideally, beta should be measured over a long time period (i.e. more data points) to increase precision • However, changes in industry (i.e. airlines after 9/11; banks in 2008/2009) may merit different time period • Five years has become an ‘accepted’ time period • Major sources – Bloomberg and Capital IQ – adjustable, default is two years – Compustat, Morningstar, and ValueLine – five years

Industry Adjustments Beta Time Interval/Frequency • What frequency? Daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually? • Goal is more data points, so over five years, quarterly and annually will not be enough, but daily adds noise • Major sources – Bloomberg and Capital IQ – adjustable, default is weekly – Compustat and Morningstar – monthly – ValueLine – weekly

Industry Adjustments Beta Normalization Adjustments • Beta estimation should be forward-looking, but calculations are all historical • Studies (Blume, Vasicek) have suggested that betas revert to the mean (market beta of one or industry beta) over time • Major sources – – – –

Bloomberg – (0.67 x beta) + (0.33 x 1.0); Blume method Compustat and Capital IQ – unadjusted Morningstar – Vasicek adjustment (reverts to industry) ValueLine – 0.35 + (0.67 x beta)

Industry Adjustments Why do we care? • Which beta is ‘right’ for Exxon (10/15/10)? – Google Finance / Reuters = 0.48 – Yahoo Finance = 0.38 – ValueLine = 0.75

• All are ‘right’, but they are calculated in different ways • So, which one? It may be a matter of analyst preference or matching specific facts to calculation approaches

Industry Adjustments Beta – Levered or Unlevered • Observed beta from stock prices inherently include the business and financing risks for a company, and are called levered or equity betas • An ‘unlevered’ beta (or asset beta) removes the financing risk, and reflects only business risk • Basic steps – ‘Guideline’ betas are unlevered – Unlevered betas are ‘relevered’ based on the assumed capital structure for the subject entity

• Several formulas for unlevering beta, presented Hamada model for simplicity

Industry Adjustments Unlevering Beta βu = βl / [1 + (1 – t)(Wd / We)]

• Inputs

– βu = Unlevered beta – βl = Levered beta – t = Tax rate for the company – Wd = % Debt in capital structure (market) – We = % Equity in capital structure (market)

Industry Adjustments Relevering Beta βl = βu / [1 + (1 – t)(Wd / We)]

• Inputs

– βl = Levered beta – βu = Unlevered beta – t = Tax rate for the company – Wd = % Debt in capital structure (market) – We = % Equity in capital structure (market)

Industry Adjustments Beta Application • Define industry and SIC code – Use ‘industry’ beta from Morningstar – Look-up betas from guideline companies – Calculate betas from guideline companies

• Consider impact of data sources, calculation methodologies, and adjustments • Relever to subject capital structure

• Insert into MCAPM

Company Specific Risk Premium

Company Specific Risk Premium Overview • Accounts for risk which is unique to the company • One of the most subjective areas of business valuation • Can be estimated through • Professional judgment • Quantitative methods

Company Specific Risk Premium Professional Judgment • What factors should be considered (to the extent not considered elsewhere)? • External factors • General economic outlook • Industry outlook

• Internal factors • • • • • • •

Nature and history of the business Financial condition and earning capacity of the business Customer or supplier concentrations Quality of management Dependence on key employees Pending regulation or litigation Competition

Company Specific Risk Premium Professional Judgment • What factors should be considered (to the extent not considered elsewhere)? • SWOT analysis • Michael Porter’s Five Forces • • • • •

Rivalry Threat of substitutes Buyer power Supplier power Barriers to entry

Company Specific Risk Premium Professional Judgment • How do factors translate into an actual risk premium? • Trugman - “there is no objective source of data to properly reflect or quantify the specific company risk premium. It is a matter of judgment and experience.”

• Component methods • Detail • Observation • Summary

.

Company Specific Risk Premium Professional Judgment Component Methods: Company Specific Risk Component

Detail

Observation

Quality of management

(1.0)%

-

Dependence on key employee

0.0%

neutral

Financial condition

2.0%

+

Pending litigation

2.0%

+

3.0%

3.0%

Total Company-Specific Risk Premium

Summary

3.0%

• Which one? •How did you determine quality of management to be -1.0%? Relative to what? •Summary component method may be easier to defend

Company Specific Risk Premium Quantitative Methods • Are quantitative estimates the answer? • Butler Pinkerton / Total Beta • Method proposed by Peter Butler and Keith Pinkerton in early 2007 • Beta is adjusted for the total risk of the subject company • Total Beta = Beta of guideline public company / correlation of regression used to estimate Beta of guideline public company • Substituting Total Beta into the CAPM model provides a new cost of equity with all non-systematic risk included • The company-specific risk premium can be isolated by removing the risk-free rate, Beta x ERP, and size premium

• BPM Calculator available on BVR’s website • Does not eliminate professional judgment

Company Specific Risk Premium Quantitative Methods

Company Specific Risk Premium Quantitative Methods • Recent criticism of BPM / Total Beta • Larry Kasper vs. Butler and Pinkerton • Sarah von Helfenstein1 claims that the authors of Total Beta either: • “Misinterpret capital market theory,” • “Misunderstand statistical fundamentals,” • “Manipulate statistical equations in a manner that distorts the intended relationships,” • “Misinterpret the use of the regression equation,” • or “Misunderstand the effect of investor diversification on the risk of the investment.”

• So does it pass the ‘peer reviewed’ test? Von Helfenstein, Sarah. "Revisiting Total Beta." Business Valuation Review 28.4 (2009): 201-23.

1

Company Specific Risk Premium Quantitative Methods • Duff & Phelps Risk Study • Three alternative measures of company risk • Operating margin • Coefficient of variation in operating margin • Coefficient of variation in return on equity

• Similar application to information in Duff & Phelps size analysis

Company Specific Risk Premium Quantitative Methods

Data Source: Duff & Phelps Risk Premiums Report

Company Specific Risk Premium Application • The existence of CSRPs are debated, and the quantification thereof is controversial at best – Textbook CAPM suggests that unanticipated events manifest in cash flows; only systematic risk impacts cost of capital

• Quantitative models are being proposed, but some are met with stern criticism • Informed judgment still essential

The Big Picture

Cost of Equity Putting the Pieces Together Cost of Capital - Build-up Method Comparison 12/31/09 Duff & Phelps Morningstar - Historical Risk-free rate 4.58% Risk-free rate Premium over risk-free rate 11.98% Equity risk premium adjustment Equity risk premium Estimate of equity risk premium 5.00% Implied from Duff & Phelps 4.25% Size risk premium, 10 Adjustment 0.75% Industry risk premium Industry risk premium Per Morninstar 2.00% Duff & Phelps 'Consistency' Adjustment Estimate of company (ERP Estimate / SBBI ERP) 0.75 specific risk premium Adjusted industry risk premium 1.50% Estimate of company specific risk premium 2.00% Cost of Equity

20.81%

Cost of Equity

4.58% 6.67% 6.28% 2.00%

2.00%

21.53%

Cost of Equity Putting the Pieces Together Cost of Capital - Build-up Method Comparison 12/31/09 Duff & Phelps Morningstar - Historical Risk-free rate 4.58% Risk-free rate 4.58% Premium over risk-free rate 11.98% Equity risk premium adjustment Equity risk premium 6.67% Estimate of equity risk premium 5.00% Implied from Duff & Phelps 4.25% Size risk premium, 10b 10.01% Adjustment 0.75% Industry risk premium Industry risk premium 2.00% Per Morninstar 2.00% Duff & Phelps 'Consistency' Adjustment Estimate of company (ERP Estimate / SBBI ERP) 0.75 specific risk premium 2.00% Adjusted industry risk premium 1.50% Estimate of company specific risk premium 2.00% Cost of Equity

20.81%

Cost of Equity

25.26%

WACC Overview • The WACC is the rate a company can expect to pay to all of its security holders in financing its assets WACC = [MVe / (MVd + MVe) x Re]+ [MVd / (MVd + MVe) x Rd x (1 – t)]

• Inputs – MVe = Market value of equity – MVd = Market value of debt – Re = Cost of equity – Rd = Cost of debt – t = Tax rate

WACC Capital Structure • The WACC is determined by the mix of debt and equity (i.e. capital structure) and their respective costs • How is capital structure determined? – Target from industry / guideline companies – Actual from subject company (use iterative calculation feature of Excel)

• Minority versus control? – Minority often based on actual capital structure, as minority owners can’t compel change – Control can be based on ‘target’

WACC Cost of Debt • In a forward-looking cost of capital, should be cost of new debt • Practically, cost of debt can be estimated as the weighted average of existing debt at respective rates • Since interest is tax deductible, the cost of debt should be computed in after-tax terms

Discounting vs. Capitalizing Overview Discounting (DCF)

Capitalizing (CCF)

Used to determine the present value of a series of future economic income streams

Used to convert a static period income amount into a current estimate of value

Use: When future income is expected to grow at varying rates in future periods

Use: When future income is expected to grow at a constant rate

Future increment of return is estimated specifically and included in the numerator

Estimates of changes in future returns are lumped into one annually compounded growth rate, which is subtracted from the growth rate in the denominator

Discount rate = Cost of capital (k)

Capitalization rate = Discount rate – longterm growth rate (k – g)

Apply to: Projected period cash flows

Apply to: Base period grown by growth period (CF0 * (1 + g)), or CF1

Discounting vs. Capitalizing Growth Rates • Sources of Growth Rates – – – – –

Inflation estimates Gross Domestic Product (GDP) estimates Industry reports Industry association reports Management estimates (reasonableness)

Discounting vs. Capitalizing Growth Rates

Data Source: Business Valuation Resources, Economic Outlook Update, 4Q 2009

Discounting vs. Capitalizing Growth Rates

Data Source: IBIS World

Cost of Capital Application • Free cash flows to equity with cost of equity = Market Value of Equity • Free cash flows to invested capital with WACC = Market Value of Invested Capital – Don’t forget to subtract debt for MVe!

• When cash flows grow at varying rates in the future - DCF

• When cash flows grow at a constant rate - CCF

Special Topics

Special Topics • Mid-Period Adjustments • Private Company Cost of Capital Survey

Special Topics Mid-period Adjustments • Mid-Period Adjustments – Traditional DCF and CCF models assume all cash is earned at the end of a period – In reality, cash is usually earned at different times throughout a given period Traditional Capitalization Discounting

Mid-Year

Special Topics Private Company Cost of Capital Survey • Pepperdine University’s Private Capital Markets Project • Survey of major market participant segments on required returns • Segments (required return from 2009 survey) – – – – –

Senior lenders (6.5%) Asset-based lenders (11%) Mezzanine funds (18%) Private equity groups (25%) Venture capital funds (42%)

• www.bschool.pepperdine.edu/privatecapital

Questions and Comments Jason MacMorran, CPA/ABV/CFF, CVA, MS 225.408.4766 [email protected] http://www.pncpa.com/cnt_speaking-engagements.asp

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